The Labor Code of the Russian Federation provides for three types of working hours:
- normal working hours;
- reduced working hours;
- part time.
1. Normal Working Hours
Normal length of working hours may not exceed 40 hours per week.
This is the most common type of working hours for employees to work. Employees are expected to have a five-day working week or a six-day working week under this type of working hours, although other working time distribution options are also allowed throughout a calendar week.
2. Reduced Working Hours
Reduced working hours are stipulated by the law for some categories of employees:
- employees under 16 years of age may not work more than 24 hours per week;
- employees between 16 to 18 years of age and disabled employees may not work more than 35 hours per week;
- employees who work under harmful and/or dangerous labor conditions may not work more than 36 hours per week.
Тhe length of working hours for students of educational institutions under 18 years of age who work when free from studies throughout an academic year shall not exceed a half of the limits prescribed for persons of the relevant age.
Also, the Labor Code of the Russian Federation and other federal laws can establish reduced working hours for other categories of employees (teaching employees, medical workers, and other employees).
If an employee works under reduced working hours he/she shall be paid in the same manner as under normal working hours.
3. Part Time
Part time is established for an employee in two cases:
- upon agreement between an employee and an employer;
- if an employee has applied to an employer requesting for part time, an employer may not reject such a request (for instance, it is binding upon an employer to fix part time at a request of a pregnant woman, of one of the parents (a guardian, a trustee) who has a child at the age of under 14 (a disabled child at the age of under 18), and, also, of a person who looks after a sick person in the family as written in a medical conclusion).
If an employee works on part time basis he/she shall be paid in proportion to time worked or subject to the scope of work done.
Part time work shall not result in any limitations of length for an annual basic paid vacation and limitations of other labor rights.
It should also be noted that the Labor Code of the Russian Federation contains special rules to address night time work, work on the eve of days off and non-working holidays, overtime work, open-ended working day, shift work, etc.
Employees’ working time at an individual company is determined by an employer by internal rules, which may not reduce safeguards for employees, stipulated in the laws.
It should be noted that it is binding on each employer to introduce such rules. It is also binding on all employers to maintain a time sheet to record actual time worked by each employee.